The age of firn air in Antarctica at pore close-off depth is only known for a few specific sites where firn air has been sampled for analyses. We present a model that calculates the age of firn air at pore close-off depth for the entire Antarctic continent. The model basically uses four meteorological parameters as input (surface temperature, pressure, accumulation rate and wind speed). Using parameterisations for surface snow density, pore close-off density and tortuosity, in combination with a density-depth model and data of a regional atmospheric climate model, distribution of pore close-off depth for the entire Antarctic continent is determined. The deepest pore close-off depth was found for the East Antarctic Plateau near 72degrees E, 82degrees S, at 150+/-15m (2sigma). A firn air diffusion model was applied to calculate the age of CO2 at pore close-off depth. The results predict that the oldest firn gas (CO2 age) is located between Dome Fuji, Dome Argos and Vostok at 82degrees E, 83degrees S being 156+/-22 (1sigma) years old with an age distribution of 103 years. At this location an atmospheric trace gas record should be obtained. In this study we show that methyl chloride could be recorded with a predicted length of 187 years (mean age of methyl chloride) as an example for trace gas records at this location. The longest record currently available from firn air is derived at South Pole, being 80 years. Sensitivity tests reveal that the locations with old firn air (East Antarctic Plateau) have an estimated uncertainty (2sigma) for the Modelled mean CO2 age at pore close-off depth of 30% and of about 35% for locations with younger firn air (mean CO2 age typically 40 years). Comparing the modelled age of CO2 at pore close-off depth with directly determined ages at ten sites yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a slope close to 1, suggesting a high level of confidence for the modelled results in spite of considerable remaining uncertainties.
Masks are mandatory in the city and Victoria is virtually sealed off from the rest of the country.Police and the military are guarding state borders and visiting homes to enforce quarantine orders.Still, 459 fresh cases were reported in Victoria on Sunday — up from 357 on Saturday. Around a dozen more were recorded in other parts of Australia.”These things change rapidly, but we have to say these numbers are far too high,” Andrews said. It is the worst loss of life from the virus in Australia since the disease first emerged, according to a tally compiled by AFP.Australia has dodged the worst ravages of the pandemic so far, logging just 14,000 cases in total — fewer than many harder-hit countries see in one day.But a second wave of infections is testing the nation’s much-lauded response to the contagion.The number of new cases has remained stubbornly high in recent days despite five million people in greater Melbourne spending the last two weeks in lockdown. Australia has suffered its deadliest day from the coronavirus since the pandemic began, with authorities reporting ten fatalities Sunday and a rise in new infections despite an intensive lockdown effort.The country’s COVID-19 death toll rose to 155 and the southeastern state of Victoria reported more than 450 new infections in the last 24 hours.A clearly concerned Victoria Premier Daniel Andrews said ten people aged between their 40s and 80s had died, of which seven deaths were linked to outbreaks in aged care facilities. Topics :
David Silva top of the shop for fantasy managers December 14, 2017 Submit Share English Premier League football club Southampton FC has announced Asian-focused online bookmaker TLCBET as its official Asia Betting Partner.The deal begins immediately and will further cover the next two English football seasons. TLCBET will additionally hold the title of Global Casino partner for Southampton FC.We are proud to be supporting Southampton as their official Asia betting partner and official global casino partner,” said Mike Chong, brand director for TLCBET. “The Saints have a massive fanbase in Asia and we are excited to be working with them.”TLCBET has prior experience marketing within English football, having formed an Asian-focused betting partnership with Middlesbrough FC in 2016 and having been shirt sponsor of West Bromwich Albion for the Premier League 2015/16 season.David Thomas, Commercial Director at Southampton, added: “We’re looking forward to working closely with them [TLCBET] through the coming seasons to further enhance our growing reputations across Asia.” Kane keeps firing to delight of fantasy managers January 16, 2018 ECB proposals “another addition to an already packed marketplace” April 23, 2018 Share StumbleUpon Related Articles