The number of cases reported in January through March matches the pace recorded in 1994 and 1999both years of high HPS case counts. In both those years, the preceding 1 to 2 years brought environmental conditions that favored a large rodent population, including increased rainfall and plant cover. The larger rodent population, according to the CDC, increased transmission of hantavirus among rodents, which heightened the risk for people. HPS typically begins with a headache, myalgia, and a fever above 101°F, followed shortly by bilateral, diffuse lung edema that can resemble acute respiratory distress syndrome radiographically. Most cases occur in the spring and summer, according to the report, but this seasonal pattern varies by location. Jun 13, 2006 (CIDRAP News) Nine human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in five states were reported from January through March of 2006, which could signal an above-average risk of the disease this year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Editor’s note: A correction was made in this story on Jul 11 (2006) to eliminate errors concerning the numbers of hantavirus cases in Arizona and New Mexico since 1993. Cleaning up potential food sources and nesting sites See also: People contract HPS through contact with the saliva or droppings of rodents, most commonly the deer mouse. The disease is characterized by fever and severe pulmonary symptoms and is fatal 30% to 40% of the time, the report says (the CDC doesn’t say how many of the cases early this year were fatal). The culprit is most often the Sin Nombre virus. Sealing up holes around the home to prevent rodents from entering Taking precautions when cleaning rodent feces or nest sites CDC has initiated a “Seal Up! Trap Up! Clean Up!” campaign (see link below) to limit exposure to HPS and other rodent-borne diseases. Measures to prevent HPS include: Trapping rodents in the home to curb the population The report also says that survival probability increases with early disease detection, so healthcare professionals should become familiar with HPS’s presentation. The only treatment, according to the CDC, is supportive care. Since the virus was identified in 1993, the CDC (as of May 10) has confirmed 438 HPS cases in the United States, 35% of which have been fatal. Most cases have occurred in states west of the Mississippi River, with New Mexico (68 cases since 1993), Colorado (49), Arizona (46), and California (43) outpacing other states. As noted in the Jun 9 issue of the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, HPS was reported early this year in Arizona (3 cases), New Mexico (3), Texas (1), North Dakota (1), and Washington state (1). The CDC says people should take precautions against the often deadly disease. CDC. Hantavirus pulmonary syndromefive states, 2006. MMWR 2006 Jun 9;55(22):627-8 [Full text] CDC’s “Seal Up! Trap Up! Clean Up!” campaignhttp://www.cdc.gov/rodents
“We still have (Andy) Carroll, (Matthew) Jarvis, (Carl) Jenkinson, (Kevin) Nolan and (James) Collins out,” Allardyce said in Thursday’s press conference. “Sakho tweaked his back on Tuesday too so we’re not sure if he’ll be fit for Saturday. “You don’t want to be faced with that many injuries, but we’re looking pretty good with the way we are playing.” West Ham head into the game having been knocked out of the League Cup in the second round by the Blades. Allardyce made nine changes to the team that won 3-1 at Crystal Palace last weekend to face Nigel Clough’s men. Despite a solid display, they lost 5-4 on penalties after Enner Valencia, who made his first West Ham start against the Blades, missed the crucial penalty in the shootout following a 1-1 draw after 120 minutes. And Allardyce is disappointed he will not get the chance to blood more young players in the latter stages of the competition. “It’s a shame we got knocked out because it would have been great for the (Reece) Burkes, the (Daniel) Pottses and the (Diego) Poyets to play more in those type of games,” the 59-year-old manager said. “We have to keep developing them in training. “The young lads put on a good show.” Press Association Allardyce has warned his players to expect a highly-motivated Southampton side on Saturday. The Saints lost 2-1 at Liverpool in their Premier League opener before holding West Brom to a goalless draw. Ronald Koeman’s men travel to London again on the back of Tuesday’s 2-0 triumph at Millwall that earned them a spot in the third round of the League Cup. “With a new manager, Southampton will have players who want to impress him,” Allardyce said. “Having watched the Liverpool game they put up a good performance and then got a draw at home. “We need a little more consistency in front of goal and we’ll be fine.” Allardyce revealed he is looking to make one more signing before the end of the transfer window but ruled out any further exits. “We have the budget for one quality player and that’s a possibility before the window shuts,” he said. “I can’t see anyone going the other way at the moment. “Then we have an international window and that’s good for us with the injury list.” The Hammers have five players sidelined while Diafra Sakho is doubtful for the encounter at Upton Park. The Senegal striker hurt his back during Tuesday’s Capital One Cup exit to Sheffield United. West Ham manager Sam Allardyce is confident his team can beat Southampton in Saturday’s Barclays Premier League clash despite their injury woes.